Pain relief and drugs

Pain relief and drugs

Analgesics

This group of products includes medicinal substances of different chemical structure and mechanism of action. The main place among the painkillers are analgesics.

There are narcotic and non-narcotic analgesics. Drugs include morphine, omnopon, promedol, fentanyl, etc. They suppress a variety of pain, including very severe pain resulting from injuries, burns, myocardial infarction. The analgesic effect of narcotic analgesics is mainly due to the fact that they disrupt the conduction of pain impulses in different parts of the spinal cord and brain. The drugs in this group also have a pronounced effect on the psyche, weakening negative emotions associated with pain (fear, anxiety, depression) and creating a feeling of physical and mental comfort and well-being (the so-called euphoria). Along with this, with the repeated introduction of narcotic analgesics in the same dose, addiction develops (a decrease in sensitivity to them), at which the analgesic effect is weakened. Prolonged use of these funds may be accompanied by a painful addiction to them – drug addiction. Therefore, narcotic analgesics are strictly registered and the indications for their use are limited.

Non-narcotic analgesics include various synthetic drugs (analgen, acetylsalicylic acid, butadiene, paracetamol, etc.). Compared with narcotic analgesics, they have less analgesic activity and are effective mainly for pain resulting from inflammatory damage to various organs and tissues (toothache, pain in arthritis, myositis, neuritis, etc.). In addition to the analgesic effect, non-narcotic analgesics cause an antipyretic effect (see Antipyretic drugs), and many of them also have anti-inflammatory properties (see Anti-inflammatory drugs). Do not take these drugs without a doctor’s prescription. There are cases of a dangerous violation of blood formation, caused by long-term independent (without medical control) use of analgen, butadiene. Systematic uncontrolled administration of salicylic acid preparations (for example, acetylsalicylic acid and sodium salicylate) can irritate the gastric mucosa, sometimes accompanied by bleeding (especially if the drug is used in the form of uncrushed tablets), as well as cause tinnitus, impairment of hearing, and weighting of the flow some diseases (for example, bronchial asthma), etc.

The analgesic effect can also have a variety of drugs that do not belong to the group of analgesics. Thus, the pain associated with spasm of the smooth muscles of the internal organs, decreases under the influence of antispasmodic agents that relax smooth muscles, atropine, Belladonna preparations, papaverine, but shpan, etc.For pain resulting from vasospasm accompanied by impaired blood supply to individual organs, vasodilators are effective, in particular, pain in angina pectoris is weakened by drugs that improve blood circulation in the heart (nitroglycerin); headaches associated with increased blood pressure – antihypertensives (antihypertensives).In case of abdominal pains caused by the accumulation of gases in the intestines, the so-called carminatives (dill water, etc.) are effective in promoting the release of gases from the intestines, or carbol – the drug that absorbs them. The action of these funds is aimed at eliminating the cause of pain.

B.’s, application with in case of acute pain, until the establishment of their cause can distort the clinical picture of the disease, lead to serious consequences.

The main thing in the use of analgesics – do not forget that you need to identify and eliminate the causes of pain. With many ailments, painkillers are not needed at all.

So, with menstrual pain and intestinal colic, it is often enough to use antispasmodic drugs – for example, but-shpy. Pain in the intestines due to gas accumulation effectively reduces espumizan.

For pain behind the sternum, it is necessary to use vasodilators – nitro-glycerine. With unpleasant sensations associated with diseases of the oesophagus and stomach, antacids help – almagel, phosphalugel. Headaches due to high blood pressure relieve antihypertensive drugs.